Vijayanagara means the ‘city of victory’. Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya founded the Vijayanagara kingdom around 1336 AD on the banks of Tungabhadra river in Karnataka.
There was a story about framing the name Vijayanagara that Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya were the great devotees of Sage Vidyaranya, so for their new formation of the Kingdom named as Vijayanagara with the blessings of Vidyaranya. Hence the Vijayanagara Empire ruled nearly 250 years by the kings of different families. After the family of Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya, Saluva, Tuluva, and Araviti families ruled the Vijayanagara Empire.
The city of Vijayanagara:
The city built on the banks of Tungabhadra. Many foreign travelers visited this city. They were Nicolo Conti from Italy in 1420 AD, The Persian trader Abdul Razak in 1443 AD. The Portuguese traveler Paes in 1520 AD.
Vijayanagara kingdom in World History:
Almost every visitor wrote about the glory and prosperity of Vijayanagara kingdom. According to Portuguese traveler, the city was constructed magnificently beautiful buildings spread both sides of the Vijayanagara streets. The merchants sell rubies and diamonds, emeralds and pearls on the roads as groceries. Vijayanagara kingdom, the place for many varieties of cloths and every evening, the villagers conduct a village fair and sell horses, fruits, vegetables etc.The city as divided into four divisions. The first one was for Temples. The second one was for Crops where irrigation facilities arranged sophisticated. The third one for Palaces for Royal families and for Ministers. The fourth one for residences for ordinary people.
Vijayanagara Empires gave a lot of importance to the army. They built very strong forts and imported horses from Arabia and Iran. They also adopted newly introduced guns and Cannons. In those days the army and Cavalry was one of the powerful armies in India. The king had a million fighting troops and 35,000 cavalries. The Captains of the army were called Nayakas. They have many powers and administrate the areas under their control. They had the Judicial powers also. Most of the Nayakas were Telugu, some Nayakas were very powerful among them were Saluva Narasimha or Narasa Nayaka who could ever challenge the Vijayanagara kings and took power in their own hands where Vijayanagara king died and became king.
Sri Krishna Devaraya:
During the rule of Sri Krishna Devaraya, the Vijayanagara kingdom flourished at its peak stage he conquested the great Muslim sultans Bahmani and the Gajapatis of Odisha. He oppressed many revolutions of several chiefs in Andhra, Tamil and Karnataka regions.
On every Vijayadashami day, the armies show a massive parade and celebrate the festival with great honour. Krishnadevaraya paid a patron role of cultural activities. He had special attentive to the temples so he visited many famous temples like Tirumala, Sri Sailam, and Ahobilam and constructed large temples in his Kingdom.
Krishnadevaraya and Ashtadigaajas:
He was the great patron of Telugu literature and himself composed Amuktamalyada on the life of Andel the Tamil Bhakta poetess. Almost his court had eight famous poets, popularly known as Ashtadigaajas. They are Allasani Peddana, Mukku Thimmana, Dhurjati, Ramaraja Bhushana, Tenali Ramakrishna, Pingali Suranna, Ayyalaraju Ramabadhrudu and Madayagari Mallana.
Decline of Vijayanagara dynasty:
After Sri Krishnadevaraya, Rama Raya enthrones Vijayanagara Empire. Then the five Bahamani rulers Joined together and fight with Rama Raya at tallikota in 1565 AD and defeated Rama Raya. Later the Bahamani Sultans looted and destroyed the magnificent city Vijayanagara and the City came under the control of Bahamani Sultans. Like this Vijayanagara decline into history.