Aryabhatta is one of the great mathematicians of ancient times. He was born in 476 AD at kusumapura or Pataliputra. He was the head of the Kusumapara Institution, organized by Nalanda University. The University was very famous in those days and attracted students from all over the world. Even the Chinese, Japanese, Tibetans and many students cross the Himalayas to join Nalanda University.
Hence, he deals with both mathematics and astronomy. At the age of 23 years, he wrote two books on Mathematics and Astronomy, which contains 121 stanzas. The text consists of 108 verses and 13 introductory verses. Aryabhatta divided these stanzas into four chapters called Padas. They are 1. Gitika Pada 2. Ganita pada. 3. Kalakriya Pada 4. Gola Pada
- Gitika Pada: 13 stanzas are mentioned in this pada and analyze the basic definition of astronomic parameters and tables. The duration of planetary revolutions was also discussed.
- Ganita pada: 33 stanzas were written in this pada. In this book, he discussed geometrical figures with their properties and mensuration, series, linear and quadratic equations, square roots, and cube roots salvation also discussed.
- Kalakriya pada: 25 stanzas were written, which indicate the proper position of the Sun, Moon and Plants.
- Gola pada: 50 stanzas mentioned; these stanzas deal with the motion of the Sun, Moon and Plants.
Aryabhatta’s Contribution to Mathematics:
He brought the theories in ‘Numbers’. They are the Notation system, place value, square and cube root, and interest formulas.
Algebra: integer solutions, indeterminate equations, identities, algebraic quantities, mathematics series.
Geometry: Discovered the Pi value, Pythagorean theorems, Circle theorems, and formulas.
Trigonometry: Sine table
Aryabhatta’s Contribution to Astronomy
He explained the cause of the eclipses of the Sun and Moon. He gave the perfect value of the circumference of the Earth. Aryabhatta valued the length of the year as 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes and 30 seconds.
He was a great Mathematician but also an astronomer. Aryabhatta’s contribution to Mathematics was glorious and admirable. Still, his theories are the sources to do some estimations by astronomers. Without proper instruments, he measured the distance and the value of circumferences, influencing Modern scientists. In appreciation of his outstanding contributions to Mathematics and astronomy, the Indian Government honoured him by naming India’s first satellite after his name Aryabhatta.
Since childhood, Aryabhata has been brilliant in their studies and eager to learn new things. Especially mathematics attracted him, and he did many experiments before higher education. When his studies were completed with local gurus, he wanted to study higher education by going to University in Kusumapura. So joined Kusumapura university for advanced studies and lived there up to his teaching. There he studied the Buddhist and Hindu traditions and understood the inner meanings of Hindu scriptures written by sages. During their education, his tremendous talent in education made him kulapati to one of the institutions at Kusumapura.
Historians say he also became head of the Nalanda University in Pataliputra. The Pataliputra had an astronomical observatory, which was installed and observed into the Universe by Aryabatta. He contributed to setting up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar.