Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Shivaji Maharaj History
Chhatrapati Shivaji was one of the famous kings of India. He influences a lot of the Hindu Kings for their individual rule in their kingdoms. The Shivaji Maharaj fought strongly against the Mughals to form the Maratha Kingdom. Shivaji was born in 1627 A.D or in 1630 A.D. His father Shahaji Raje Bhosale worked as an officer in the court of Bijapur Sultan and Mother Jijabai a religious woman. Jijabai brought up him with great care and indicted the patriotic themes and infused him to grow the love for the motherland. Even, Guru Ramdas and guardian Kondadev played a crucial role to architect the character of Shivaji Maharaj as a great king in the Indian History.
At the early age, he learned military training and how to fight in the guerrilla war. He also organized a large number of hilly area people into a fighting force and turned the army very powerful. His dream of forming the Marathi Kingdom forced to began conquering neighboring territories. At the very age of nineteen, he captured the forts of Torna, Chakan, Singhagarh, and Purandar.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Attacks on Bijapur Sultan
The conquered forts situated very near to Bijapur Sultanate, the feared Sultan imprisoned Shahaji Raje Bhosale to control the expansion of Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji kept quiet up to his father’s release and later started occupying Konkon and Javali forts. This made angry to Sultan of Bijapur and sent a huge army against Chhatrapati Shivaji in 1659 under the famous general Afzal Khan. The sultan ordered Afzal Khan to bring Shivaji to Bijapur dead or alive. However, Afzal Khan was killed into the hands of Shivaji Maharaj. In the same year at Pratapgarh battle, Chhatrapati defeated the Bijapur Sultan and collected the weapons and war-materials to strengthened the Maratha Kingdom. Due to the success of the battle, Shivaji history widely spread among the Marathas. Again in December 1659, he defeated Bijapuri army at Kolhapur and gained horses, elephants, and warfare materials.
Disputes With Aurangzeb:
In 1666, Shivaji Maharaj went to Agra on the invitation of Aurangzeb. There he was insulted and placed under house arrest. After few days he fell ill, then requested Emperor Aurangzeb to send the sweets and gifts to fakirs, saints in Agra to offerings for recovery of health. These offerings continued for several days, on 17 August 1666, Shivaji hides under the sweets of the basket and escaped to Deccan disguised as Sadhus. Later Mughal Sardar Jaswant Singh tried to bring the peace proposals between Shivaji and Aurangzeb. Hence, the peace proposals were succeeded and Aurangzeb gave the title of Raja to Shivaji and Sambhaji restored as a Mughal mansabdar, gave rights to collect revenue in Berar territory.
Coronation of Shivaji Maharaj
As the Mughal Zamindar, he campaigned the nearest territories and acquired extensive lands and wealth. However, he was not famous as an individual king, this made to form a Hindu Sovereign Kingdom Maratha. The Maratha leaders also supported his thoughts and extended support to make the Emperor of Maratha Dynasty. So on 6 June 1674 at Raigad Pandit Gaga Bhatta conducted the rituals of coronation and announced him as the Emperor of Maratha Kingdom. Nearly Fifty thousand people attended the ceremony, before them Chhatrapati Shivaji entitled as Kshatriya Kulavantas, Chhatrapati, and Haindava Dharmodhhaarak. But after few days on 18 June 1674, his mother Jijabai died, this made bad omen, so a second coronation held on 24 September 1674.
Shivaji Maharaj Death
In the later years, he fell ill in the month of March 1680 A.D. He suffered severely from fever and dysentery and died on the eve of Hanuman Jayanti around 3 April 1680 A.D at the age of 52. His death also caused rumors that his youngest wife Soyarabai poisoned him to make his son Rajaram to the crown. Soyarabai plans with some ministers made her son Rajaram as the king of Maratha Kingdom. However, Sambhaji killed the commander of Raigad Fort and ascended the throne on 20 July the same year. He imprisoned Soyrabai, Rajaram, and his wife Janki Bai.
Chhatrapati Shivaji was famous in leading the army in guerrilla warfare and hill campaign. He recruited himself the suitable persons in the army. Though they created good discipline among the army soldiers and maintained light infantry and cavalry. He was the father of the farming navy in India. His Navy had 200 warships and kept guards over the sea. He had tremendous skills to lead a huge army and quick in making decisions.
Art and Culture
Due to the great devotion of Chhatrapati Shivaji, welcomed the saints Ramdas, Tukaram and Mauni Baba to his court and admired and showed utmost respect to them. He encouraged the artists of art and culture. He played patronage role in evaluating Sanskrit and Hindi literature. The famous Sanskrit poets Jairam, Paramananda were also lived in his reign.
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj administration
His installed Ministers group to give suggestions. He was greatly influenced by the principles of Chanakya’s Arthasastra and Deccan states administrative systems. Even the council of ministers gives the suggestions during the complicated situations. He divided his kingdom into a number of provinces. Panchayat, head of the village played a key role in collecting taxes.