The Great Maratha Kingdom :
The Great Maratha Kingdom existed from 1674 to 1818 over a large area of the India sub-continent. They are Hindu warrior group leaders and very famous for Guerrilla conflicts. They defy the Mughal Emperors with Guerrilla conflicts and make them away from the sleep. Marathas are credited to the large extent for ending Moghul rule in India. Marata became prominent in the 17th century, under the leadership of Shivaji.
Origin of The Great Maratha Kingdom:
Shivaji son of Shajaji and Jijabai was a famous warrior. He was brought up by listening to the warrior stories from Mahabharatha and Ramayana by his mother. His dream was to establish the Maratha Kingdom. He gathers local leaders and did Guerrilla conflict with Aurangzeb for a long duration and finally established Maratha Dynasty in 1674CE. He succeeded to lay the foundation of Hindu Marata Emperor. Shivaji was very courageous in conflicts, and show unbeliever dare to defy the big Mughal Kingdom. His administration, his devotion in God service and people made him a prominent figure in Maratha dynasty. He formed Independent Marata Nation and chose Raigad as the capital city of his kingdom.
The Great Maratha Kingdom Struggle to Sustain:
Mughal Emperors concentrated the newborn kingdom and tried to suppress it by forcing the big army but Sivaji was undefeated and followed the guerrilla tectonics to terrify the Mughal army and protect his kingdom. Since 1681 to 1707 up to the death of Aurangzeb, the Marathas involved in the fight with Mughals. In the Indian history, these 27 years war marked the most extensive period of warfare ever. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Marathas surfaced triumphantly.
The Marata Kingdom was spread from Peshawar(present in Pakistan) to the North to Tamilnadu to the South. It was almost 1/3 of entire Indian Territory.
The Rulers of Maratha Empire:
- Raja Ram
- Baji Rao
- Balaji Baji Rao
After the death of Shivaji in 1680, his son Sambhaji became the ruler and ruled for eight years. When he died Rajaram, his step brother rose to the throne and ruled from 1689 to 1700. When he breathed last in 1700, his wife strong woman Tarabai ruled the kingdom from 1700 to 1707. After her Shahu, Shivaji’s grandson rose to the throne. He designated Peshwa as the premier of the Marata Kingdom. Under the regime of Peshawar, the Marata Kingdom grew significantly.
The Great Maratha Kingdom System of Governance :
Shivaji brings the system of Pradhanas to simplify the administration.
Peshwa – He was a Pradhan(Principal) to the kingdom. He was responsible for administration and took important decisions and rule the kingdom when the king was not present.
Mutalik : Served as Deputy to Peshawar.
Sardar Senapati: He had responsibilities to control the armed forces and looking after the territory.
Sardar: Deputy to Senapati
Navis: Look after day to day operations of the crowned heads.
Amatya – Chief Revenue Minister.
Dabir – He was the foreign minister. Welcomed diplomats of other countries.
Sachdev: Secretary to the Emperor.
Nyayadhish: He was the Chief Justice.
Pandit: He had the responsibility to resolve domestic spiritual disagreements.