Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir Early Days:
Jahangir was born on 31 August 1569 at Fatehpur Sikri in India. His birth name was Nūr-ud-dīn Muhammad Salīm. He ruled the Mughal empire from 1605 to 1627 after Akbar. Jahangir was the eldest son of Akbar. Akbar ruled Mughal Empire for a long time. So the impatient Jahangir revolted against Akbar in 1599 A.D when Akbar was in Deccan. He was defeated in the revolt; however, with the support of his stepmother, Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, he enthrones in 1605 AD. In the first year, his own eldest son Khurram organised a rebellion. Immediately reacted, Jahangir put down the rebellion, executed nearly 2000 members, and blinded his son.
His administration was admirable and completed the constructions which Akbar founded. He introduced new concepts to strengthen the economic standards and impressed the artists to bring the richness of cultural achievements. He also faced a rebellion from Khusrau in 1623; he got a diplomatic end to the conflict and maintained an amicable atmosphere with the Hindu kings, especially the inherited disputes with Rajputs brought down in his tenure. The Hindus gave a high rank in the Mughal court.
Nur Jahan’s interruption into Mughal Empire:
Nur Jahan first married Ali Quli Beg Istaiju. Once he saved Akbar from a tiger, he earned the title ‘Sher Afgan’, making him the Imperial Guard in Bengal.
As soon as Jahangir enthroned the Mughal Empire, Sher Afgan was murdered in Bengal. The widowed Nur Jahan was brought to Agra with her nine years daughter. In the Agra fort, she assisted the Emperor’s stepmother. In later years, Jahangir married Nur Jahan. Jahingar was addicted to opium and drinks, and then Nur Jahan influenced him a lot and took control of the entire Mughal Empire. From 1611 AD, for nearly 15 years Nur Jahan and her relatives dominated the Mughal political affairs rather than other noble Mughals. Once, Nur Jahan ordered Prince Khurram to march for Kandahar when Persians seized the city. These orders brought differences between Prince Khurram and Nur Jahan. After the death of Jahangir, Nur Jahan lost her influence on royal affairs.
The reputation of Mughal Paintings during Jahangir Rule:
Jahangir is very interested in painting portraits. So, during his reign, the Mughal painting reached its peak. He patronised documenting animals, birds and other objects as paintings. The famous Ustad Mansur also belonged to his power. He also patronised Persian and European artists. He encouraged the local artists to paint various objects and exhibit them in the galleries. On the way, the artists got donations from the visitors. He also maintained a large zoo, where he kept records variety of species.
Jahangir’s health became significantly worse; to restore his health, he travelled from Kabul to Kashmir. However, he got a severe cold and decided to return to Lahore. But in 1627 AD, he died near Sarai Saadabad, preserved his body there, and buried his body in the Baghsar Fort, Kashmir. Later his body was transferred to Lahore and buried at Shahdara Bagh.