Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb was born on the 24th of October, 1618 AD, in Dohad in Madhya Pradesh as the sixth son of Shah Jahan. His conduct was straightforward, and Shah Jahan applauded him many times in court. He learned war skills and was famous for dealing the tragic incidents. At the age of 27, they became the chief commander and suppressed much rebellion in the Mughal empire. Shah Jahan sent him to the Deccan territory as the ruler. There he settled many rebellion agitations and occupied the newly conquered territories. King Aurangzeb brought many reforms in agriculture methods and tax collections. He stayed there till 1644 AD and proved himself as a good administrator.
War of Succession
Shah Jahan had four sons, all very skilled in military activities, and commanded a considerable military force. The eldest son was Dara Shikoh, the designated heir to the Mughal emperor and resident at Shah Jahan’s court: second, So Shuja, the governor of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. Murad, the third one, was the Governor of Gujarat and Malwa. Aurangzeb was the governor of the Deccan. At first, Aurangzeb defeated the forces of Dara Shikoh and occupied Agra city, the capital of the Mughal Emperor, as soon as he beat his brother Dara Shikoh and took Shah Jahan as a prisoner and kept him in Agra Fort. Again Murad was also defeated at the hands of Aurangzeb; furthermore, he collected another force and fought against the Mughal army. But the second time, he suffered a lot and was betrayed by one of his allies and handed over to Aurangzeb. Then Dara was condemned to death due to apostasy from Islam. The sentence of death was carried out on 30 August 1659. On the way, he defeated all his brothers and finally took over the Fort and assumed as the Emperor of Mughal.
As Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
After becoming Emperor of the Mughal Empire, he faced many struggles from various kings around the kingdom. He struggled with Rajputs, Sikhs, Marathas and his own Son Akbar. Sikhs assisted Aurangzeb’s brother and principal rival, Dara, so he ordered the killing of Sikhs and murdered Guru Tegh Bahadur for refusing to convert to Islam. It brings worse relations between the Mughals and Sikhs. Maratha Maharaj Shivaji always struggled with the Mughal Emperor and founded the Maratha Kingdom against the Mughals. Shivaji died in 1680 AD; later, only King Aurangzeb got some relief. But the same year, Jodhpur and Mewar kings allied against Aurangzeb and declared themselves free from the Mughal Empire.
Meanwhile, he sent an army under the leadership of his son Akbar to defy the Rajputs and Mewar to merge their continents into Mughal Empire. However, Akbar declared himself the Emperor and accessible to the Deccan and sought the help of Sanbhaji, the son of Sivaji. Then the Emperor decided directly involve these matters and captured Shambhaji, tortured him brutally and killed him in 1689 AD. He exiles his son Akbar to Persia, and never Akbar comes back. During his period Bijapur and Golconda also declared themselves free from Mughal Rule. When he fell ill and died, he hid the news secretly to avoid another war of succession. Finally, he died on 20 February 1707 AD at 88.