Maharaja Ranjit Singh History
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born on 13 November 1780 AD in Gujranwala, Sukerchakia Misl. His father Maha Singh, the commander of the Sukerchakia Misl and mother Raj Kaur an intelligent woman. When Ranjeet Singh was a child, affected with smallpox and infected on his one eye. So he lost his eyesight. During his childhood days, Punjab ruled according to the Confederate Sarbat Khalsa system and the territories divided among misls. When he was 12 years old, Maha Singh died and was raised in the care of his mother Raj Kaur. At the age of 16, he married to Mehtab Kaur, the daughter of Gurbakash Singh, the commander of Kanhaiya Misl. Later the marriage, his mother-in-law looks after the career of Ranjit Singh.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Expanding the Kingdom:
At the age of 18, he concentrated on expanding his territory. Raja Ranjit Singh started conquering all the territories of other misls. He also conquered the region of central Punjab from the Sutlej to the Jhelum and founded Sikh Empire. His bravery and courage caused him to call Sher-e-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which means Ranjeeth was the Lion of Punjab.
At the age of 20, he set forth further expanding his territory. He started invading other territories. At first, conquered the holy city of Amritsar in 1802 AD from their ruler Bhangi Misl, later conquered the reign under Afghan chief Qutb-ud-Din in 1807. In 1809 AD he conquested Ghurka force in the Himalayas and added Kangra to his Empire. He continued the fighting against the Afghans to driving them out of Punjab. In the war, he captured Pashtun, Peshawar and Multan provinces in 1818 AD. He also put an end to the Muslim rule in Multan and annexed Kashmir in 1819 AD.
Ranjit Singh was a secular ruler and respected all religious rituals. He recruited the soldiers who belong to various religious communities and gave key positions to the Hindus and Muslims in his army. Maharaja Ranjit Singh appointed several European officers to train the infantry and the artillery. These training helped the army to conquest in North-West Frontier.
In 1830 AD the British were planning to expand their territories in India. But the king strongly defies their plans. The British also did not dare to try to annexe his territories for as long as he was alive. He died in 1839 AD, later his death the Sikh army was defeated in the first Anglo-Sikh war in 1846 AD and in 1849 ad. Due to these two wars, the glory of Sikh Empire came to an end and British authority expanded in Punjab and surrounded territories.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Personality
In those days, the kings behaved very brutally and lack of kindness towards the enemies or their own people also. But the character of Ranjit Singh was very kindness, hate the cruelty and total absence of malice. He followed strictly the tradition and ethos of Sikh religion. He had been motivated to the preaches of Sikh Gurus.
Personally, he was very generous and philanthropist. He didn’t suppress the daily practices of the Hindus and Muslims. Before him the Mughals failed to maintain the religious tolerance, even killed the Sikh Guru Tejh Bahadur Singh. However, Maharaja Ranjit Singh contributed a lot to renovate the Hindu and Muslim monuments. He played the patron role of traditions and culture of all religions. Once a Muslim Calligraphist had transcribed the Quran with hand and nobody buy it at the high cost. This news reached to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, then called the calligraphist, honored him by giving one lakh rupees in those days.