Kosala Kingdom in Ancient India:
Kosala Kingdom was one of the ancient kingdoms in India and divided into sixteen Mahajanapadas. The city was the second Mahajanapadas of Sixteen Mahajanapadas. It situated to the northwest of Maurya Empire and next to Kashi. Once it was a powerful kingdom during the period of Pasendi the famous ancient king. Later the city ruled by Pasendi’s son Vidudabha. During the rule of Vidudabha, Kasi under the rule of Kosala. After Chandra Gupta, the entire Magadha Kingdom came under the rule of Bimbisara, son of Chandra Gupta. He married Kosaladevi, the sister of Pasendi, and then the sacred Kasi village gifted as a part of the dowry.
Kosala Kingdom in Jataka Scriptures:
The Jatakas described the struggle between Kasi and Kosala, which continued for a longer period. According to Jataka stories sometimes the Kosala king invaded on Kasi and captured Kasi King, other time Kasi king attacked Kosala and captured the king. Many kings ruled the city, among them Kansa was one who was very dare and was given the special title of Baranasiggaha, after his conquest over Kasi. There were many attacks happened among Kosala and Kasi Kingdoms, the attacks continued until Bimbisara’s marriage with Kosaladevi. The marriage brought peace between Kosala and Magadha kingdoms.
Kosala After Bimbisara:
Soon after the death of Bimbisara his son Ajatsatru came to the throne and began the war between Ajatsatru and Pasendi. In the attack pasendi captured Ajatsatru alive, but Pasendi gave him his daughter Vajira and again brought political alliance between enemy kingdoms. During the rule of Sakyan territory, Kapilavasthu was under the administration of the city. According to Sutha Nipata Gautama Buddha birth place also belonged to the city. The sacred river Sarayu divided the city into two parts; they were Uttara and Dakshina Kosala.
Story of Mahapananda:
There are many legendaries about the Origin of the name Kosala. Among the legendaries, nothing could make Mahapadmananda smile, and so his father announced in his kingdom that he offered a reward for who would be able to make his son laugh. Many people arrived from various villages in the kingdom and show their efforts to amuse Mahapananda, but their efforts became worthless. At last Sallka sent a celestial actor to the king’s court, then the actor gestured some signs. Then Mahapananda laughed utmostly.
A great part of Gautama Buddha life spent in the ancient. The sages and Bikkers got plenty of alms in the city. The peaceful forests for the purpose of the monks meditates solitude.
The city was larger than any other cities of Magadha and equal to four ‘Magadha Patthas’.