Kosala Kingdom in Ancient India:
The Kosala Kingdom was one of the ancient kingdoms in India and was divided into sixteen Mahajanapadas. The city was the second Mahajanapadas of the Sixteen Mahajanapadas. It is situated northwest of the Maurya Empire and next to Kashi. Once, it was a powerful kingdom during Pasendi, the famous ancient king. Later the city was ruled by Pasendi’s son Vidudabha. During the rule of Vidudabha, Kasi was under the control of Kosala. After Chandra Gupta, the entire Magadha Kingdom came under the control of Bimbisara, the son of Chandra Gupta. He married Kosaladevi, the sister of Pasendi, and then the sacred Kasi village was gifted as a part of the dowry.
Kosala Kingdom in Jataka Scriptures:
The Jatakas described the struggle between Kasi and Kosala, which continued for more extended. According to Jataka stories, sometimes the Kosala king invaded Kasi and captured Kasi King, while the Kasi king attacked Kosala and captured the king. Many kings ruled the city; among them, Kansa was very dared and was given the unique title of Baranasiggaha after his conquest of Kasi. Many attacks happened among Kosala and Kasi Kingdoms; the attacks continued until Bimbisara’s marriage with Kosaladevi. The union brought peace between Kosala and Magadha kingdoms.
Kosala After Bimbisara:
Soon after the death of Bimbisara, his son Ajatsatru came to the throne and began the war between Ajatsatru and Pasendi; in the attack, passed captured Ajatsatru alive, but Pasendi gave him his daughter Vajira and again brought a political alliance between enemy kingdoms. During the rule of Sakyan territory, Kapilavasthu was under the city’s administration. According to Sutha Nipata, Gautama, Buddha’s birthplace, he also belonged to the town. The sacred river Sarayu divided the city into two parts; they were Uttara and Dakshina Kosala.
Story of Mahapananda:
There are many legends about the Origin of the name Kosala. Nothing could make Mahapadmananda smile among the legendaries, so his father announced in his kingdom that he offered a reward for those who could make his son laugh. Many people arrived from various villages in the domain and showed their efforts to amuse Mahapananda, but their efforts became worthless. At last, Sallka sent a celestial actor to the king’s court, and then the actor gestured some signs. Then Mahapananda laughed utmostly.
A significant part of Gautama Buddha’s life was spent in ancient. The sages and Bikkers got plenty of alms in the city. The peaceful forests, for the monk, meditate solitude.
The city was more significant than any other city of Magadha and equal to four ‘Magadha Patthas’.