First Battle of Panipat War

First Panipat war:

Panipat war had a lot of Importance in Indian history, caused to establish the Mughal Empire by Babur in India. Such an important war happened on 21 April 1526, between the Afghan invader Mughal Emperor Babur forces and the Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. In the war, Babur introduced the cannons in the war and gained the victory over Ibrahim Lodi. This was one of the earliest battles involving Gun power firearms. The two armies fought with each other at a place called Panipat. So the war named as the Panipat war.

In Afghanistan, the political changes effect on Babur to search for establishing his own power in India. Then he seeks help from the Persian nobles and invaded Delhi, which was then under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi. The political differences among the local Indian kings made easy to Babur to success in First Panipat war. He came to India with the army of only 12000 soldiers, utilized the local leaders and success to establish the Mughal Empire in India. Some historical views add that, with the support of local leaders and tribes Babur army reached to 30,000 soldiers.

Babur Success in First Panipat War

Babur came up with a plan that successfully negated by Ibrahim. In the last stage of the march, Babur ordered his men to gather up many carts. They gathered seven hundred carts lashed together using ropes to connect the carts. Enough space left between each pair of carts to place five or six mantels, and Babur’s matchlock men were posted behind the mantels. A number of gaps left on the line, separated by an arrow’s flight, and each wide enough to let 100-200 horsemen use them. One flank of Babur’s line was protected by the town of Panipat, the other flank by a barrier of brush and ditches. He split his army into the normal left, right, centre and vanguard. His plan was to wait for Ibrahim to attack the fortified line, and then have the flanking parties attack the rear of the enemy army.

panipat war

Impact of First Panipat War

The biggest problem Babur faced was getting Ibrahim to actually attack. Every day Babur’s men rode out towards the enemy camp, firing arrows into their massed ranks, attempting to provoke the enemies to far in the lure, but not succeeded.  Eventually, Babur decided to launch a night attack on Ibrahim’s camp, hoping that this would provoke a battle. A force of 4,000-5,000 men selected to make this attack, but the night march went badly wrong and alerts the Ibrahim Lodi’s army. Finally, one morning of 21 April Ibrahim left his camp and moved to attack Babur’s lines.

Also Read: The Great Kalinga War

Babur’s plan worked perfectly. His flanking parties attacked the rear of Ibrahim’s force, the left and right wings attacked its sides. Ibrahim was unable to force his way through the barriers in Babur’s centre, and his army became increasingly compressed. His left and right wings were soon unable to either attack or retreat, leaving only his centre still really active. Mainly the archers played a crucial role in fighting with the large Ibrahim Lodi’s army. Babur’s army supported by two small cannons.

Establishing the Mughal Empire in India

During the First Panipat war, Ibrahim lost his hope on victory, the fierce attack of the archeries of the Babur army and the force of the Cannons caused the Ibrahim army fear. They dispersed from the battlefield to save the lives. This made Ibrahim very stressed, became the wicked heart and killed himself. Although his body didn’t discover until later in the afternoon. Babur dispatched a force towards Agra to try and catch the fleeing Sultan, before sending Humayun with a larger force to occupy the city, seize Ibrahim’s treasury. The Mughal soldiers had killed around 15-16,000 of the enemy army, although the inhabitants of Agra estimated the losses at 40-50,000. Many of the survivors captured, cruelly treated and few slaughtered. Three days after the battle Babur entered Delhi, where he found Ibrahim’s mother, family and a number of his prisoners, treating both groups well.

The First Panipat War had established Babur as a major power, caused to established Mughal Dynasty in Hindustan. At first, he had only authority on Punjab, Agra, and Delhi only. In the later years, he was succeeded to expand the Mughal Empire by conquering the neighboring regions. This First Panipat War made the Mughals to establish a strong empire which ruled entire Hindustan for 300 years.