King Kanishka- Kushan Empire
Emperor Kanishka History
Kanishka was the king of Kushan Empire in Central Asia. He was the third king of Kushan Dynasty. He was very famous for his military, political and spiritual achievements. His main capital was at Peshawar, Purushapura present in northern Pakistan. The regional capitals located the modern city of Taxila in Pakistan, Begram in Afghanistan and Mathura in India. Emperor Kanishka was a Kushan of Yuezhi ethnicity. He spoke an Indo-European language related to Tocharian and followed the Greek script in his inscriptions. The King was the successor of Vima Kadphises and the administration was very impressive among the genealogy of the Kushan Kings.
There are so many legendary stories about him preserved in Buddhist religious scriptures. He was equally admired as Ashoka, Harshavardhana and into Greek Menander I. He followed the Buddhist tradition and also considered Buddhists to have been one of the greatest Buddhist Kings. With the brilliant administrative efforts made other to follow the Kanishka’s era, was now generally accepted to have begun in 127 CE on the basis of Harry Falk’s groundbreaking research. Kushans used Kanishka’s era as a calendar reference by the Kushans kings for about a century until the decline of the Kushan realm.
Extent of Kanishka Empire:
Emperor Kanishka conquered the neighbouring territories and expanded the kingdom in every corner of the central Asia. The Kushan empire was very vast and one of the largest kingdom in ancient India. It extended from southern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, north of the Amu Darya(Oxus) in the North West to Northern India, as far as Mathura in the south-east. Kushan empire also included Kashmir where a town Kanishkapur named after him.
According to the Chinese records China, general Ban Chao fought battles with a Kushan army of 70,000 men led by Kushan Viceroy named Xie(Chinese) near Khotan in 90 CE. First, general Ban Chao claimed the victory but finally use a scorched-earth policy the region fell to Kushan forces in the early 2nd century. As a result, the territory of the Kushans extended to Kashgar, Khotan and Yarkand, which were in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang. Several coins of Kanishka founded in the Tarim Basin.
King Kanishka Coins
King Kanishka coins are very famous, the present historians got a lot of information about the Kanishka empire. They estimated the lifestyle and administration of Kushan Dynasty. The coins portray images of Indo-Aryan, Greek, Iranian and even Sumero-Elamite divinities, demonstrating the religious syncretism in his beliefs. The Kanishka coin scriptures were written in The Greek language. Later coins contained Bactrian language and the Greek divinities on the coins replaced by Iranic ones. On his coins, the king wears largely rounded boots, armed with a long sword. His clad was in a long coat and trousers with flames emanating from his shoulders and the face depicted with a long beard.
Kanishka History in Buddhist Scriptures
The King’s reputation was largely discussed in Buddhist scriptures. He followed the Buddhist tradition and conducted the 4th Buddhist council in Kashmir and encouraged the Gandara School of Greko-Buddhist Art and the Mathura school of Hindu art. King Kanishka personally maintained religious equality. He had embraced both Buddhism and the Persian cult of Mithra. He maintained a close relationship with the Buddhist scholar Ashvaghosha, later he became a religious advisor.
The standing Buddha, holding the left corner of his cloak in his hand and forming the Abhaya Mudra. All these coins minted in gold and small in size compared to the other gold coins of Kanishka. On the coins, the Buddha represented wearing the monastic robe. The ears are extremely large and long and have an abundant topknot covering usnisha. Later these styles carved on the Buddha statues of Gandhara.
Kanishka Casket in Peshawar
The archaeological excavations held during the year 1908-1909 in Shah-Ji-Dheri on the outskirts of Peshawar. The Archaeologists discovered in a deposition chamber under Emperor Kanishka stupa. It is today at the Peshawar Museum. It contains three bone fragments of the Buddha, which are now in Mandalay, Burma. The casket decorated with Buddha and his worshipping. The lid of the casket shows the Buddha on a lotus pedestal and worshipped by Brahman and Indra. The body of the casket represents the king with Iranian Sun and Moon gods. On the sides of the casket, two images of a seated Buddha worshipped by royal figures.
King Kanishka Contribution to Buddhism
At the beginning, the king was very violent, faithless ruler and merciless tyrant. Once the embossed Buddhism he tried to spread the peace all over like Ashoka. The conquest of Tarim Basin caused the transmission of Buddhism to China. Probably in the 2nd century, the Buddhist monks played a key role in the development and the spreading the Buddhist teachings and ideas in the direction of Northern Asia. Above all the matters indicates, king Kanishka was not only a great emperor but also the patron of Buddhism.