Raja Ram Mohan Roy Biography
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a famous social reformer known as the ‘Maker of Modern India’. During the socio-religious reform movements, he founded ‘Brahmo-Samaj’ and became renowned as a great scholar and brilliant thinker. Due to his efforts, Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah gave him the title of ‘Raja’. During the socio-religious reform movement, the ‘Brahmo Samaj’ played to bring social reforms and inform people about religious dogmas. He even published the first book, Tofat-ul-Mohiddin, in 1803, which criticized idol worship. Raja Ram Mohan questioned political discrimination and opposed the Bengal Zamindars’ powers. He fought against British trading rights and settled in Kolkata in 1814.
He was born on May 22, 1772, in Radhanagar, West Bengal. His father, Ramkanto Roy, and his mother, Tarini. Ramkanto Roy had Vaishnavite and mother Shaivite background. Even though they taught religious uniformity to Ram Mohan Roy, this made his religious tolerance. In the beginning, he studied primary Education at a local school. At the very early age of 15, he learned Sanskrit, Arabic, Bangla and Persian languages. Learning many languages early made him a brilliant student in the village. From childhood, he wanted to reform the blind faiths in the Hindu Religion.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy Sati
He rejected the caste divisions among the people and intensely agitated against the inhuman custom of women becoming Sati. Therefore the orthodox Hindu families petitioned in British Parliament to approve the hold of Sati against the Ban of Sati by William Bentinck. Then Raja Ram Mohan Roy also kept the counter-petition in favour of Bentinck’s action. During his life, he fought for women’s rights and encouraged widow remarriage. This fight is also famous as Raja Ram Mohan Roy Sati. As a result, it considerably impacted Indian society to change women’s lives. He founded Atmiya Sabha in 1815, and the members met weekly and discussed Hindu principles. Later in 1828, Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the ‘Brahmo Samaj’, which made a lot of efforts to enlighten the fundamental concept of religion among the people.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s Achievements
In Hinduism, people believe in superstitions; they move very blindly daily. Roy tried to change the attitude of the Hindu people. He opposed the worship of Idol Gods and meaningless religious rituals. Raja Ram exhorted Hindus that all holy books of Hinduism preached the worship of one God. The reformer opposed not only the rational approach of Hindus but also Christianity. He also didn’t accept the blindfolded beliefs of Christianity. Raja Ram Mohan Roy established many libraries to bring students awareness about society and various social issues. He worked with British officials to get reforms to the Academies at the college level.
In Modern Indian History, He tried to bring reforms to Education. He intended that modern Education could change the entire attitude of Hindu society. So he cooperated with David Hare, who wanted to introduce the Western Education system in India. In their later years, he founded the famous Hindu College in Kolkata. He maintained his first English School in Kolkata at his own cost of money. Roy is interested to know the international events. Raja Ram openly discusses his opinions on liberty, democracy and nationalism, injustice and oppression. In those days, all people and individual dignities respect his attitude and beliefs.