That desert is the only desert in India and is located on the borders of India and Pakistan. Most of the part occupied in Marwar region, Rajasthan state. The place receives very little rain, so no large rivers flowing through the Thar Desert. So the place is covered with sand and thorny trees only.
Thar Desert Climate:
Due to the little rain and lack of water facilities the Desert is not supported to grow the crops. Hence the people cultivate heat based crops for their economic needs. Even though few places covered with green grass, so people grazing sheep, goats, and camels for their sustain life. Here the people store the rainwater with great care for their animals and agriculture purposes. Life in Thar is very difficult, one who lives in the region, they should face many problems in daily life. Especially, the Shepherd usually travel across many states with their herds and come back to their region before the rainy season. Due to the Thar desert weather, the people’s main occupation is grazing Sheep, camels, trading goats and wool of the sheep.
Before inventing sea route to India, the Europeans, Arab traders traveled to India through the desert for trading. Many traders from India, Iran, and Afghanistan traveled through the region, however, the journey feels them very difficult. So the travelers stop at the convenient places for rest during the journey. Slowly these stopping places grew with local people and traders. Finally, the resting places became important towns, cities like Jaisalmer, Bikaner, and Jodhpur.
In ancient days pilgrimage was the most important activity in every religion. The Hindu pilgrims go to Dwaraka in Gujarat. The Islam people go to Mecca, Madina in Arabia through the Thar Desert. Like that other religious pilgrims also traveled through the Thar Desert for their destinations along with traders. Thus, over centuries, people of many religious settled in That desert based towns and cities. Many Indian Marwari traders from Gujarat traveled other parts of India and settled in several places. In fifty years ago the government built some large canals from Punjab rivers to bring water to the Northern part of Thar Desert. These water canals made the people cultivate the crops and brought prosperity in the lives of the people. The dwelling of the canals caused prosperity in Thar Desert people. The prosperous villages came upon the banks of the canals. So many people from Punjab, Haryana came to the villages and settled in life.
Cultivation is very difficult in the Thar desert. Here we can see the bushy and thorny trees. Here the people main food is roti made of Bajra with the green gram or black gram. They ate the vegetables that grew on some trees. In olden days people dried some fruits, vegetables to eat throughout the year. Due to the water facilities, today we can find all variety of food items.
Cattle are the main living source to the Desert people. The cattle give very good milk, the people trade the milk and use to make some varieties of sweets to sell. The sweet Bikaner is a famous sweet in the region. Especially, the Marwari traders learned the sweet in Bengal and prepare it in their own way, made the sweet at extra delicious.
Like this, Thar desert has many peculiar qualities, has the rich traditional history. In olden days the area is the place for many varieties of crafts, a new style of dress, new kind of food. This rich tradition and culture are still showing its peculiarity in Indian society. Therefore, thousands of tourists from all over the world are coming here to know about the glory of the Thar Desert.