# Essay on Brahmagupta Mathematician

#### Brahmagupta Biography

Brahmagupta was one of the famous Indian mathematicians and astronomers. He was the first mathematician who described the Zero and Negative Numbers. He wrote two main books on mathematics and astronomy in the Sanskrit language which called ‘Brahmasphutasiddhanta’ and ‘Khandakhadyaka’. Such a great Mathematician was born in 598 CE in Bhinmal, the Indian state of Rajasthan at present. The King Vyaghramukha was the ruler of Bhinmal and made Brahmagupta as the head of the astronomical observatory in Ujjain. In those days the Ujjain was the destination to all the mathematician and astronomers.

Especially, the ‘Brahmasphutasiddanta’ discussed the loopholes of his contemporary mathematician’s theories. This book has 24 chapters and 1008 Sanskrit Verses. This book also discussed the mathematical chapters of geometry, trigonometry, algebra and algorithmics. At the age of 67, he wrote another book ‘Khanda-Khadyaka’ discussed the astronomy.

#### Brahmagupta Contributions to Mathematics

He contributed a lot to the mathematics and still, his theories are using to solve the mathematical problems. In his book, ‘Brahmasphutasiddhanta’ discussed the negative and positive numbers and their multiplications. He also discovered ‘A positive number multiplied by a negative number is negative’, ‘A negative number multiplied by a negative number is positive’ and other two principles of these positive and negative multiplications. He also explained the ‘geometrical’ theories which are similar to the ‘Pythagorean Theorem’. He also introduced the principles and rules of trigonometry and also brought a principle to know the area of a triangle. He widely discussed the concept of negative numbers. He founded the value of ‘Pi’ and introduced the formula of cyclic quadrilaterals.

#### Brahmagupta Contribution to Science and Astronomy

The developed western countries came to the decision of the Earth and Universe were in round shape. However, Brahmagupta argues that the Universe and Earth were in the shape of ‘flat’. He also predicted the positions of the planets in the universe. He brought the perfect timings of the forming of lunar and solar eclipses. At present knowing, those things are very simple, but in those days without any instruments knowing the Universal facts were very difficult. He was the first scientist who calculated the length of a solar year which close to the present calculation of the solar year. The flowing of the water in the river made him predict about the gravity but not surely estimated about it.

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